Rabu, 18 Mei 2011

The first part of urinalysis is direct visual observation. Normal, fresh urine is pale to dark yellow or amber in color and clear. Normal urine volume is 750 to 2000 ml/24r.

Turbidity or cloudiness may be caused by excessive cellular material or protein in the urine or may develop from crystallization or precipitation of salts upon standing at room temperature or in the refrigerator. Clearing of the specimen after adition of small amount of acid indicates that precipitation of salts is the probable cause of turbidity.

A red or red- brown (abnormal) color could  be from dye, eating fresh beets, a drug, or the presence of either hemoglobin. Or myoglobin. If the sample contained many red blood cells, it would be cloudy as well as red.

Example of appearance of urine..

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